Ontology, epistemology, positivism and interpretivism are concepts dreaded by many, especially when it comes to discussing them in a research paper or assingment :) Here I explain each one, as well as their relationship to each other. Theory of Knowledge 3. [1]Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. h�bbd``b`��@��H�� �\WH0�XA��� 172 0 obj <>stream In response to this regress problem, various schools of thought have arisen: Under the heading of Epistemology, the major doctrines or theories include. What is Philosophy? Epistemology in Education: Epistemological Development Trajectory Rachida Labbas Washington State University Learning is a continuous process, and through the process of learning, people acquire or construct new knowledge; this knowledge is evaluated implicitly or explicitly (Hofer, 2000). Informal presentation of knowledge. After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. ", "Is justification internal or external to one's own mind?". Visit the Foundation for Creating A Mind With Heart and start exploring the true nature of your own Heart and Mind and how it creates your physical life experience. The Ontology of Science, analysis and systematization of scientific postulates. B. EPISTEMOLOGY--concerns with the nature of As you explore the branches of philosophy, remember to keep Metaphysics first and foremost. It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental.It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, … Epistemology: Epistemology literally means “science of knowledge. 145 0 obj <> endobj The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology . There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen in the Concept Chart.At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence.Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence. h��VYo�8�+zl1���� @�I���@�����5�>[�6�~H�N�N3ۦ��0dQ")�?J\�>dD0zN�B/���;��ػD���p!] The theory of knowledge, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech/study), is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, scope and (possibility/study) of knowledge.Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy. The study of the universe is one of the themes of metaphysics. Divided into the topics of ethics and aesthetics, axiology is the philosophical study of value. The name ‘Metaphysics’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Meta’, which means beyond or after, and ‘Physika’, which means physics. It is concerned with answering the questions about identity and the world. Logic is the attempt to codify the rules of rational thought. Epistemology What is Epistemology? %%EOF ", "How we are to understand the concept of justification? Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge.It answers the question, "How do we know?" The mission of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is to clarify what the conception of knowledge involves, how it is applied, and to explain why it has the features it does.And the idea of knowledge at issue here must,in the first in-stance at least,be construed in its modest sense to include also belief,conjecture, and the like. It attempts to distinguish good reasoning from bad reasoning. b}�o3012(������� ܝ It is the foundation of a worldview. 3. The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. The Logic of Science, which is responsible for analyzing the logical structure of scientific theories. `��QZ��O�Q& � `Q�4. It is the study of the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation. Branches of epistemology. Branches of Philosophy Instead of being treated as a single, unified subject, philosophy is typically broken down into a number of specialties areas or branches. Epistemology Eduardo Fermé Organization 1.. o a p ese tat o o ow edge. First, decide which two of the following branches you would like to explore: epistemology, metaphysics, logic, aesthetics, and ethics. The Main Branches of Philosophy are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. It describes the narrower use of the concepts ‗ontology‘ and ‗epistemology‘ as sub-branch and branch of philosophy respectively and later focus It is the clear, lucid information gained through the process of reason applied to reality. The Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. This is a first introductory tutorial on what philosophy is about. Next, create a Venn diagram to help organize your ideas. METAPHYSICS--deals with the study of reality ; Ontology--explores issues related to nature, existence, or being ; Cosmology--concerned with the nature and origin of the cosmos or the universe. And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the time on what the clock says. ", "How is knowledge acquired? The following are the branches that we will focus on: Metaphysics Epistemology Teleology Ethics Logic Formal epistemology – subdiscipline of epistemology that uses formal methods from logic, probability theory and computability theory to elucidate traditional epistemic problems. On Particular topics in epistemology: For example: Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and has yet to be repaired. It answers the question\"What is it?\"It encompasses all that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. Title: Branches of Philosophy 1 Branches of Philosophy. Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. It is the branch of philosophy responsible for the study of existence. 4. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics. [�yL� �� �8��H,C�`/Gd�U^�`N��pdM��/08���� in �GZ� It says whether the world is real or simply an illusion. endstream endobj startxref The issue here is not who was right, but that we all have But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning, the analysis of data and the drawing of inferences. Preface. Knowledge Importance of Epistemology theory in scientific research EPISTEMOLOGY: recognize four different sources of knowledge: INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE: based on feelings rather than hard. h�b```f``2g`a``i``@ �r4��,Pa�P�O\�,��N` It is that branch of philosophy which goes beyond the realms of science. Intuition is often believed to be a sort of direct access to knowledge of the a priori. Empiricism and rationalism can be specified as the two major constructing debates within the field of epistemological study that relates to business studies. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Epistemology has different branches on which it bases its studies, and these are the following: 1. Branches of Philosophy The four main branches of philosophy are logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and axiology. considered bona fide branches of epistemology. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. In this article the four main branches of philosophy will be discussed as an overview to aid in understanding the importance of philosophy as a teacher, educator, parent, or student. In the dinner party scenario, Stephen and Caroline had quite different beliefs about the nature of knowledge. According to an ancient tradition Pythagoras of Croton (born on the Greek island of Samos, c. 580 B.C.) Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of … %PDF-1.5 %���� Epistemology has many branches that include essentialism, historical perspective, perennialsm, progressivism, empiricism, idealism, rationalism, constructivism etc. 158 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<05DB0CB75A74D942B1D7E29BBF9467B7><734D205F59B3D643B06938FD530DCBC0>]/Index[145 28]/Info 144 0 R/Length 73/Prev 135207/Root 146 0 R/Size 173/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream On Epistemology in general: Joseph Cruz’s Nature Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science article, “Epistemology” (pdf document) Peter Klein’s Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy article, “Epistemology”. Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is 11:56. endstream endobj 146 0 obj <> endobj 147 0 obj <> endobj 148 0 obj <>stream It questions the existence of spiritual beings, nature of universe, life after death, etc. The kind of knowledge usually discussed in Epistemology is propositional knowledge, "knowledge-that" as opposed to "knowledge-how" (for example, the knowledge that "2 + 2 = 4", as opposed to the knowledge of how to go about adding two numbers). The difference between the two is that preservationist SE clings more closely to traditional paradigms of mainstream epistemology whereas expansionist SE ventures a bit further into unfamiliar terrain.¹ As a prolegomenon to an assessment of SE’s prospects, then, let us consider "Philosophy is the love of wisdom" The rather vague definition 'love of wisdom' comes from the origin and etymology of the Greek word 'philosophy': philo ("love") and sophia ("wisdom"). Fallibilism also claims that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible, or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken. But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. ", "What makes justified beliefs justified? In conclusion effort was made to clarify what ontology, epistemology and axiology entail so as to have clear understanding of what the terms mean. ", "What is its structure, and what are its limits? `5cVd��\�T̢�|>P�!k�{;G��I̻�ژ��gMf��˜��>2�h�� 3M�*f ��w.$�!V�C�5���! The Semantics of Science, which is based on the analysis, systematization and interpretation of all scientific concepts. The traditional approach is that knowledge requires three necessary and sufficient conditions, so that knowledge can then be defined as "justified true belief": The most contentious part of all this is the definition of justification, and there are several schools of thought on the subject: Another debate focuses on whether justification is external or internal: As recently as 1963, the American philosopher Edmund Gettier called this traditional theory of knowledge into question by claiming that there are certain circumstances in which one does not have knowledge, even when all of the above conditions are met (his Gettier-cases). The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for ... Epistemology: the study of knowledge. Logic is one of the primary tools used by philosophers in their study. There are a few main theories of knowledge acquisition: The fact that any given justification of knowledge will itself depend on another belief for its justification appears to lead to an infinite regress. S��%A��Zڜ ���2)L:@Q Ľ@���d��g� 0 @~�} We shall, I predict, continue to value knowledge, if only for its instrumental value: it gets us through the … LOGICAL KNOWLEDGE: arrived at by reasoning from "point A" (which is accepted) to "point B" … Unlike Skepticism, however, Fallibilism does not imply the need to abandon our knowledge, just to recognize that, because empirical knowledge can be revised by further observation, any of the things we take as knowledge might possibly turn out to be false. 2 Branches of Philosophy (cont.) epistemology as being on a continuum between subjectivism and objectivism, which refers to “the relationship between the knower and the knowable” (p. 14). ", "What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? My belief is true, of course, since the time is indeed 11:56. ", "What do people know? A philosopher of religion must be objective. Spread the loveSome may argue that philosophy is the essence of education and without knowing your philosophy how can you learn, how can you teach, how can you live? Propositional knowledge can be of two types, depending on its source: Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in other words, the use of the senses. Epistemology, also known as the theory of knowledge, will flourish as long as we deem knowledge valuable. A paper "Formal Epistemology and … On my way to my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and form the belief that the time is 11:56. PDF | Philosophers and others have long tried to formulate an explanation of the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. AUTHORITATIVE KNOWLEDGE: based on information received from people, books, a supreme being, etc. Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledgeis the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It is a fundamental vision of the world around us. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. It is essentially about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. Aristotle, one of the most well-known philosophers, acknowledged Thales a… 0 According to Guba cited in Marovic, 2000), at the objectivist end of this( continuum one finds the logical-positivist epistemology, where the observer’s Subscribe to our newsletter, Offramp Updates and get a free 8 Week Study Guide. (it correspond to the slides of my class about knowledge in my subject “Logic and reasoning”) 2. The Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. It is essentially about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony (that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true). Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. I discuss the main branches of philosophy (metaphysics, epistemology and ethics). ... Other Branches of Philosophy: Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. Epistemology asks questions like: "What is knowledge? Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of … It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. As I explain, positivism and interpretivism are research paradigms, and epistemology and ontology are beliefs included in these paradigms. Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of particular aspects of reality. Skepticism begins with the apparent impossibility of completing this infinite chain of reasoning, and argues that, ultimately, no beliefs are justified and therefore no one really knows anything. 2.
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